Response Surface Methodology-based (RSM) usability evaluation

Ahsan Amir

Ahsan Amir

Student at NCBA & E University East Canal Campus Lahore. & Web Developer, SMM Manager, Business Developer at Blinkdevs, Adlagao and many more.
Contact Via Email: Contact Now

Yasmeen Wairs

Yasmeen Waris

Student at NCBA & E University East Canal Campus Lahore. & Teacher at Unique School.
Contact Via Email: Contact Now

Saira Wairs

Saira Waris

Student at NCBA & E University East Canal Campus Lahore. & working in Account department of Unique School.
Contact Via Email: Contact Now


In just three months, has grown to serve 13,000 active users, which is an indication of how effective it has been. A free classified advertisements website that covers the entirety of Pakistan is available here. When compared to other websites or apps, this one stands out because it mainly focuses on Pakistan as its targeted region for classified advertisements and offers a huge range of services to consumers located throughout Pakistan. The fact that has expanded at such a rapid rate demonstrates how helpful it is for individuals to purchase, sell, or trade a wide variety of goods and services in Pakistan.

The user-friendly layout of guarantees that both buyers and sellers will have a pleasant and delightful experience with the platform. As a result of its ability to adapt to the requirements of its customers, it is considered to be among the top free classified ad websites. As the way people interact with the internet is being transformed by technological advancements, is at the forefront of the competition by providing a platform that not only satisfies but also surpasses the requirements of its expanding user base. is an extraordinary achievement in the realm of online classified ads. Unlike any other free ad service, this platform offers unparalleled coverage throughout Pakistan for absolutely no cost. Within a mere three months since its inception, AdLagao has surged to success with 13,000 registered users and boasts an impressive array of practical features that satisfy customers across Pakistan. is more than just an average classifieds website – it’s a vibrant marketplace where individuals can effortlessly exchange products and services. This platform constantly advances to provide users with outstanding experiences, whether they’re buyers or sellers. Its simple interface guarantees effortless navigation for visitors of all kinds, while its user-friendly architecture enhances the seamless uploading of content, making purchases and exploring markets smooth sailing for everyone!

The success of can be attributed to their capability in adapting and accommodating the ever-evolving requirements of their users. Their platform is constantly improving, offering a flexible setting that meets the continuously changing demands of clients instead of being rigidly fixed. is taking charge in revolutionizing interactions with classified ads through cutting-edge technology and leading trends for transforming internet usage.’s dedication to user satisfaction is demonstrated by its platform, which effectively links buyers and sellers to establish a fruitful market. What was once solely a website has now evolved into an online community where people can effortlessly meet their needs through seamless trades.

In this opening, we delve extensively into the achievements of These encompass its speedy advancement and enlargement, together with its emphasis on user-oriented design that has transformed internet purchasing and sales in Pakistan. Upon closer inspection, it becomes evident that is not simply a mechanism but rather an active force propelling optimistic transformations throughout the nation’s e-commerce industry – considerably enhancing shopping encounters for individuals across the board.

The research on online classified ad sites can help you understand how works in a constantly changing environment. Looking more closely at the study that has already been done, it’s clear that the success of these platforms depends on how well they can change to meet new user needs and technological advances.

A lot of studies have shown how important it is for online markets to have interfaces that are easy for people to use. quickly grew to have 13,000 users in just three months, which fits with research that shows a link between how easy a platform is to use and how engaged users are with it. Platforms that focus on making navigation easy tend to get and keep a larger community of users, which improves the general satisfaction and user experience.’s positioning as a free classified ad site that covers the whole of Pakistan fits with research that shows how online markets are becoming more popular. According to research, platforms that serve bigger areas may be able to attract a wider range of users, making the market more lively and active. The fact that the platform has been able to get a lot of users from all over the country shows how well this geographical approach works.

The writing also stresses how important it is to be flexible and responsive to user needs. The way is committed to changing to meet the needs of its users is similar to the research that shows platforms need to be able to adapt to new technologies and changing customer tastes. This flexibility not only keeps users interested, but also makes the site a leader in the constantly changing world of online classified ads.

When you look at the research, it’s clear that successful platforms are more than just places to make purchases; they also help users feel like they are part of a group and connect with each other. is more than just a website, which fits with study that shows how social online marketplaces are. The platform’s ability to bring shoppers and sellers together and create a peaceful online market is similar to the good results found in research that looks at the social aspects of e-commerce.

In the end, the literature study sheds light on the most important things that make platforms like successful. These facts help us understand and appreciate the platform’s history and how it has changed the online classified ad scene in Pakistan. They range from the platform’s easy-to-use features and large geographic reach to its flexibility and ability to build a sense of community.

The methodology employed for evaluating the usability of involves a comprehensive approach to understanding users’ comprehension and interaction with the platform. The primary goal is to assess how well individuals can navigate and utilize the features of to achieve their goals while also gauging their satisfaction levels.

3.1 Group Formation:

Participants are divided into 4 groups, each tasked with evaluating different aspects of usability.

3.2 Usability Testing:

Participants engage with the platform, testing its functionality for both educational and entertainment purposes. – Each participant completes 4 assigned tasks, allowing a comprehensive evaluation of the platform’s usability.

3.3 Installation and Exploration:

Participants are given cc9 time to explore the platform before performing tasks, including the installation of necessary programs.

3.4 Questionnaire and Evaluation:

After completing tasks, participants fill out a questionnaire and provide feedback, contributing to the final usability assessment. Let’s see the result of our Questionnaire.

 Result Of Group A Questionnaire







 Result Of Group B Questionnaire







 Result Of Group C Questionnaire







 Result Of Group D Questionnaire







3.5 Usability Metrics:

1. Efficiency:

Efficiency is measured based on the time participants take to complete tasks, considering Compatibility, Time Loading, and Accuracy. – Formula: 

Time-Based Efficiency = Σ(nij / tij) / N, 

where nij represents task success and tij is the time taken.

2. Effectiveness:

Effectiveness is determined by the accuracy and consistency in achieving goals, incorporating Navigation and Presentation metrics. Formula:

Effectiveness = (Total Successful Participants / Total Participants) * 100.

3. Operability:

Operability assesses the ease and control features of the framework, providing error insurance for users.

4. User Satisfaction:

User Satisfaction is measured by the degree to which users can accomplish specific objectives with viability, efficiency, and satisfaction.

5. Attractiveness:

Attractiveness evaluates the model’s appeal, contributing to the overall usability of the platform.

6. Awareness (Interestingness):

Awareness assesses the rising popularity of adaptive features and their impact on user engagement and self-organization.

This comprehensive methodology ensures a thorough evaluation of’s usability, considering diverse user perspectives and experiences.

 3.6 Usability Model

Usability model

Figure-1: Usability model



The experimentation and sampling methodology for evaluating the usability of closely follows the established approach outlined in the reference.

 4.1 Participant Selection and Screening Criteria

The study engaged smartphone users with a minimum of one year of experience. A rigorous screening process was implemented through a per-questionnaire to identify suitable participants for the usability trial. Out of an initial pool of 280 participants, 80 were excluded due to insufficient smartphone usage experience, and additional exclusions were made for various reasons, resulting in a final sample size of 200 participants.

 4.2 Group Formation and Tasks Assignment

The 200 participants were divided into four groups, with each group containing 50 members in an equal gender orientation ratio. Specific usability tasks were assigned to each group, focusing on the adaptive features of  Tasks included 

  • Create account 
  • Search any product
  • Contact with seller
  • Ad Posting 

 4.3 Experimental Sessions and Task

Descriptions Participants engaged in tasks both with and without adaptive features, ensuring a comprehensive usability assessment. Each group performed their designated tasks in controlled laboratory sessions. Task descriptions for each group were detailed:

  • Group A (Create Account):

Participants/Users in this group must create an account using UI of, with a time limit of 5 minutes.

  • Group B (Search Any Product):

Participants/Users in this group search for any product using UI of The maximum time allocated was 5 minutes.

  • Group C (Contact Seller):

Participants/Users in this group must contact with ad/product owner using UI of The maximum time allocated was 5 minutes.

  • Group D (Ads Posting):

Participants/Users in this group post a new ad for their product or services using UI of The maximum time allocated was 10 minutes.

4.4 Activity Table

A detailed activity table outlines the groups, tasks, total participants, total time allocated, and post-task evaluations, ensuring a structured and comprehensive evaluation process.


Table 1: Task Table

This experimentation and sampling methodology provides a systematic approach to assess the usability of, covering a spectrum of adaptive features through diverse tasks and participant groups.


5.1 Effectiveness

Effectiveness = 70% (According to Response Surface Method)The results indicate the overall effectiveness of adaptive features on, assessed after participants performed designated tasks.

5.2 Efficiency

Efficiency = 68.70% (According to Response Surface Method)The results signify the overall efficiency of adaptive features on, evaluated post-task execution by participants.

In this study, the validation of usability is conducted using the (RSM)Response Surface Method.

5.3 Design Summary with Minimum, Maximum, and Mid Value and SD

Table 2: RSM Design Summary

This table represents the design summary including the names of heuristics, number of runs, minimum, maximum, mean values, and standard deviations.

5.4 Actual Design

This is an actual design to solve the problem including the names of heuristics, the number of runs, factors of usability, and their effects on usability in terms of response (Actual Usability).

Actual design for the problem

Table 3: Actual design for the problem

5.5 Normal Plot with values close to the normal line

 Normal plot for validation of model

Figure 2: Normal plot for validation of the model



Table 4: ANOVA Model


5.6 Analysis

Figures 3 to 5 illustrate the substantial impact of proposed attributes on’s usability through adaptive features. This affirms the accuracy of the proposed model, and the generated Actual Usability equation is deemed suitable for assessing additional adaptive features with diverse user demographics.

The results highlight the direct correlation between usability and effectiveness, efficiency, attractiveness, satisfaction, and operability.

The study examines adaptive features on, a widely used platform for free classified ads in Pakistan. The focus is on determining whether these features meet user satisfaction levels. Initially, 300 users were considered, with 65 excluded due to less than one year of experience and 35 having disabilities. The remaining 200 users were divided into 4 groups for various tasks.

Group A (Create Account) 

 Group B (Search Any Product )

 Group C (Contact Seller)

 Group D (Ads Posting )

 Final Equation in Terms of Coded Factors:

Sqrt(Actual Usability) =+7.72+0.44 * A+0.42 * B+0.43* C+0.43 * D+0.43 * E+0.44 * F

Final Equation in Terms of Actual Factors:

Sqrt(Actual Usablility) =+3.83320+0.21872 * Awareness+0.21023 * Attractiveness+0.21672 * Operability+0.21650 * Satisfaction+0.21540 * Efficiency+0.21947 * Effectiveness

Results indicate variations in task performance, emphasizing the need for adaptability in the interface. The derived equation from the ANOVA-based response surface method facilitates the calculation of Actual Usability for’s adaptive features.


The ANOVA-based analysis identifies opportunities for enhancing adaptive feature usability, emphasizing the significance of awareness (interestingness), attractiveness, satisfaction, and efficiency. Further exploration should address specific user groups, closing the gap between developers and users to enhance interfaces. Sub-task-wise usability evaluations are recommended to improve user satisfaction.

In this paper, the study assesses the usability of adaptive features on an Account stands out with approximately 68.70% efficiency and 80% effectiveness. 

Usability issues persist due to uniform adaptive features, emphasizing the need for more customization options. The study suggests making interfaces more adaptive and universally user-friendly.